Considerations in Power Loss Budgeting

Power loss budget analysis is the actual calculation and verification of fiber optic operating characteristics. Items involved in power saving include routing, electronics, wavelengths and the type of fiber used. Circuit length is the main item to be considered in power saving. The key parameters to be considered before budget loss analysis is done are attenuation and bandwidth. The purpose of loss budget analysis is to ensure that the fiber optic system works well over the proposed link. It is therefore important that budget loss analysis comes before the designing and installation of the fiber optic system.

In budget loss calculation and analysis, both the passive and active components have to be involved. This is because passive loss involves losses found in fiber, connectors and splice. In addition, couplers and splitters are equally part of the passive loss and have to be considered in the budget loss analysis. The active components involved in power loss budgeting include; system gain, wavelength, and transmitter power. Furthermore, receiver sensitivity and dynamic range are also part of active components to be included in budget loss calculation and analysis. Any fiber optic system has to be tested of loss budget before it is commissioned. This is done using test circuit with the power source and an FO power meter. The reason for this is to ensure that the system is working within the calculated loss budget.

Power loss budget calculation is done to ensure that the network machine works within the installed fiber optic link. However, in this installation, a technician can be conservative over the specifications to be used. This allows the technician to have a certain margin for fiber attenuation or connector loss. An illustration on calculating loss budget is by having a two-kilometer multimode link. This link is to have five connections with two connecters at each terminal. In between the end connectors are three connectors at patch panels in the link and a slice in the centre. When calculating power loss budget, the aim is also to ensure that there is creation of a configuration where the difference between the launch calculation and receive calculation is the maximum possible loss in decibels.

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Factors involved in Power Loss Calculation

Optical power budget is brought by the difference between the transmitter power and the receiver sensitivity. This is a factor involved because the power loss involved in any link should not exceed the power difference between the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter power is the minimum peak optical power injected into the power before the link is finally commissioned. This power is injected by the optical transmitter and is a factor to consider, therefore. Receiver sensitivity is an important factor because it defines the minimum received optical power. This power produces recovered the electrical signal with distortion in its timing. In addition, receiver sensitivity is an important factor because it helps in environments where single mode to multiple modes converters is used to complete the link.

Another factor involved in the accurate calculation of power loss is cable length. The length of this cable is limited by the need for the receiver to recover the data signal accurately. The transmitter power and receiver sensitivity permits the maximum length of optic cable to be used. Apart from these, the amount of light captured by the fiber cable is a factor involved in power loss calculation because it determines the maximum length of cable to be used. Moreover, the attenuation in the fiber link and the connector loss also determine the maximum length of fiber cable to be used. Finally, the maximum length to be considered also depends on the distance limitation association with Ethernet and Token network diameters.

In conclusion, electrical power losses are incurred along the distribution lines. At the same time loss increases as cable length increase. Power losses also vary in proportion to the amount of data being transmitted. Following cycles in networks utilizations and configurations, there is always variation in the losses.

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