Globalization, economic crises and opportunities, civil wars, and epidemics have contributed to an increase in the number of people leaving their country of origin and moving somewhere else. In this essay, I explore within the framework of the push and pull model three key factors that account for international migration. I then briefly analyze why migration provokes a negative reaction in many places.
In this paragraph, we should learn about the push and pull model that regulates migration. The adverse conditions in one place push people out, while the favorable ones in another place pull them in. There are several theories of push and pull model. First, neoclassical economic theory says that countries with scarce labor offer higher wages that pull migrants from countries where there is an excess of labor. Second, segmented labor-market theory suggests that developed countries have a market with well-paid jobs and low wages. Migrants are recruited to work to fill the places that are necessary for the economic development but that are not attractive to the natives. Third, world-systems theory argues that migration is the product of global capitalism. Pushes and pulls are complementary because migration occurs when there is a reason to migrate and a place where people can solve their issues.
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In this paragraph, we should read about the key factors that cause people to emigrate, and they can be classified into three groups. They are economic, physical, and socio-cultural factors. The most common reason for migration is economic factors. People leave their home because of bad conditions such as “low agricultural income, agricultural unemployment and underemployment” (Thet, 2014). In return, they are lured by the opportunity to have better jobs, higher salaries, and hope for a better future in another country. Because of a large number of people, humanity is faced with great competition. That is why, people try to migrate to the countries and cities with lower population density since it will be easier to find better life conditions there. Natural disasters are major causes of physical factors that cause people to leave their country. Moreover, beautiful nature and better weather pull people to other places. Social and cultural factors play a significant role in migration. Among social factors, the main one is religious beliefs. At home, people might experience confusion and religious persecution. In this case, they migrate to another country where they can find like-minded people. Additionally, the desire of humanity, especially young people, to improve their standard of living and gain independence is also important. Thus, “Improved communication facilities, such as, transportation, impact of television, good network communication, the cinema, the urban oriented education and resultant change in attitudes and values also promote migration” (Thet, 2014). Other factors that lead to migration are the life of relatives and friends in other cities and countries and the desire to get education at the institutions of that area. Thus, people migrate to the places with better conditions and development opportunities.
In this section, we should read about the negative reactions to global migration as most people have such an attitude to it even though it does not concern them directly. This situation arises from the distrust towards refugees and the wrong perception of the situation. Unlawful immigrants are the cause of racism and hostility from the population. Irregularity of migration can lead to abuse in the workplace. Moreover, migrant employees often have low status. Their work is difficult, dangerous, and dirty. Labor migrants have been used in developed countries to improve economic status for a long time. Since migrants are often limited in rights and work for lower wages, such work is beneficial to employers. Workers work long hours and have no social protection such as workplace and health safety as well as minimum wage. Employers often do not observe proper standards regarding the employment of migrants. Exploitation and abuse of migrants are often the result of the problems with language, the difference in customs and traditions. An important aspect of the ill-treatment of migrants is that they are perceived as labor from other countries. Thus, employers hire them to work during the period of unemployment for some period. Once the demand for work becomes weak, employers are willing to give up these workers. Migrants are often victims of abuse and humiliation from the locals. Children and women migrants often suffer from exploitation and abuse, including xenophobic hostility. People believe that workers disrupt their normal existence, as they need “access to food, shelter” (Counter xenophobic reactions”, 2016). A negative reaction is provoked by the labor market competition between migrants and natives. Due to the fact, that immigrants agree to work for lower wages, local residents face the problem of unemployment and difficult in job search. Another reason for such a reaction is a need for housing conditions. A greater demand for housing causes the rise in prices As a result, many people cannot afford to have their home. Moreover, global immigration increases the number of crimes in many countries, and it becomes the issue of harassment of population. Furthermore, locals mostly overestimate the immigrant population. The lack of protection causes a threat to workers since “thousands of migrants have died in transit in recent years” (Counter xenophobic reactions”, 2016). Therefore, these findings lead to the negative reaction that is the result of ignorance and imperfect examination of the facts in this regard.
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In conclusion, I have relied on the push and pull model to explain why there has been an increase in international migration. Also, I have briefly reflected on the negative reaction that migration has provoked in some places. I conclude by elaborating on two key things that I have learned in writing this essay. First, people migrate from countries with the poor living conditions and development to the countries that offer a better future. Second, migration causes dissatisfaction among the local population and leads to discrimination and ill-treatment of immigrants.