This chapter lays emphasis on review of relevant and closely related academic work done by other scholars/researchers on Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) change management. ITIL change management /control refer to the compilation of rules and ethics covering the most important practices within IT Service Management. To realize change management, encompass management techniques of IT change control that involves change orders/request for the configuration items
The paper reviews the topic under the following subheadings; problem statement, purpose statement, conceptual framework which entails management questions, research questions and investigative questions, literature review, overall research approach, conclusion (limitation, future studies), expected contribution, expected outcomes.
According to Christin Asanthi, (2001), development of computers, microelectronics and communication technologies have radically changed the way organizations operate. The need to effectively respond to customer changing business need and at the same time maximizing value, reduce cost/incidences, rework and disruption, responding to business and IT requests for change which will help align the services with the demands and needs of the business, need for speed, increase in customer numbers all have led to paradigm shift towards adoption of innovation.
It is worth noting that change is inevitable and no organization is left out, those that won’t embrace IT are perceived to be doomed and fail in their endeavors while those that will successfully adopt IT innovations are in a better position to prosper. It is important therefore to have in mind that adopting technology does not guarantee success but the manner with which the innovation was approached and diffused in the system. It is thus vital to bring to light a number of issues concerning ITIL change management that will help managers to successfully adopt IT in their respective organizations.
The research aims at investigating major issues in ITIL change management. The work will provide supportive information on a number of issues relating to ITIL change management within an organization to managers. Issues handled include integration and aligning IT and business strategies, standard ways of undertaking ITIL, benefits of change, processes of ITIL change management, challenges facing organization during change, improving security within ITIL change management, implementation of ITIL change and measuring of ITIL change management are brought to light.
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After all these issues have been brought to light, the study will provide recommendations to relevant managers and organizations on how best to go about ITIL change management. The study will also provide basis on further research work related to ITIL change management (Aladwani, 2001).
Conceptual Framework Research Questions
The Management questions, Research Questions, Investigative Questions are as stated below
- Is it possible to integrate and align IT and business strategies?
- What is the standard way of doing things in ITIL framework?
- What are the benefits of implementing change management within ITIL framework?
- What are the ITIL change management processes?
- What is the relationship of ITIL change management and other processes?
- What are the challenges facing organization while undergoing ITIL change?
- How can security be improved within ITIL change management?
- How is ITIL change management implemented?
- How is ITIL change management measured?
- What are the major goals of ITIL change management?
Change in any organization is inevitable and seems to be a complex venture, but the only way to ascertain their survival and success in the future, (Vasanthi, 2001). Change has been defined as the accumulation, alteration and or elimination of an official, designed or supported service constituents as well as its associated credentials (Behr et al, 2004).
According to review of a research “Role of information technology in banking industry” by Ilyas-Ur Rahman in 2007, it was established that majority of the Customers believed that information Technology positively impact on rendering of services to customers, for this reason more business firms are trying to embrace the technology to deliver a cost effective services.
Organizations can adopt change but if they are not in a position to manage the change, there are very high chances of the benefits if implementing such change not being realized. Change management is key as it ensures and guarantees consistency, minimize risks/incidences and ensuring that the change is successful (Barafort et al, 2002).
Factor that makes organizations to undergo changes are from two origins; transformational and transactional variables, which can either be from internal or external sources. Other forces that are deemed to stimulate change in an organization include; technology, competition from other business ventures, changes in society way of live, politics, economy recession as well as the type of workforce (Stephen Robbins 2003).
Change management involves issues concerning integration and alignment of IT and business strategies, a standard way of doing things, benefits of implementing ITIL change management, ITIL change management process, relationship of change management with other processes such as release management, challenges facing ITIL change management, improving security and measuring and auditing of ITIL change management, (Oliveira et al, 2009).
The benefits of change management are among other; reduced employees/user resistance, improved security, proper integration and alignment of IT and business strategies, consistency, reduced costs, provision of efficient and effective services as well as measuring and auditing the change, (Barafort et al, 2002).
The process also faces number of challenges which include resistance from end users/employees; high cost of adopting new innovation, security challenges (Cater-Steel et al, 2006).
Overall Research Approach
The research designs which will be used for the research are qualitative research and quantitative research methods. Use of both methods is important because it will enable the research to be broad and cover all the requirements of the research.
The primary sources of data collection to be used depending on where they were most applicable will include: interviews, observation and questionnaires (open and close-ended). Interviews were chosen because I will be able to have directs contacts with the interviewee and obtain first hand information from managers. Both the interviewer and the interviewee would be able to clarify on issues of the research done hence, being able to obtain information which is well elaborated and authentic. Despite the advantage mentioned, it’s a slow method because the process calls for interview of one person at a time and may yield to biased information (Saunders et al, 2007).
Questionnaires will also be used to collect relevant information; I will distribute them to respondent and would be collected later at an agreed date. It covers a large population at time as they would be distributed to different participants at a time and be collected later or at the same day depending on the willingness of the responded. Observation were also used, this seemed to provide more accurate information (Saunders et al, 2007).
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Materials from the library, internet and related research reports will be used to provide the required data and information. Internal sources included information compiled by a number of selected organizations concerning ITIL change management as well as other issues related to the research topic (Maylor & Blackmon, 2005). External data sources included data from outside the chosen organizations and are from government sources, previous research studies and academic institution.
Collected data will be analyzed using both non parametric as well as parametric statistic. Descriptive statistic (diagrams, tables, and graphs) will be used to present the results.
Further studies need to be done concerning what can be done to the various challenges that face ITIL change management.
Limitations anticipated include;
Legal restrictions: rule and regulations of these casinos may prevent dispatch of certain vital information that I require, as such rule only restrict information to be available to specific individuals or government organs. To counter this I will try my best to convince the casino management that the data will be purely used in research work and nothing more.
Non cooperative respondents: Some of the target respondents are expected to be suspicious and dare not to corporate in availing required information. I will employ a lot of tact to counter this in order to get information from them and dispel fears that will develop. Some questionnaires may not be returned and others not responded to.
Financial constraints: The research is an extensive one and involves use of funds in huge amounts .Due to the fact that I’ am not funded, I expect to face a lot of financial constraints which I will counter by choice of economically affordable involvements.
Hostility: some information sources especially casinos officials may unwilling and unreceptive, hence may not offer the information I need.
Limitation in Time: the time given for the research may not be sufficient; I also anticipate that I will work under pressure especially where the sources of information will give me close deadlines, like in cases where interviews are to be used.
The research is expected to contribute in integrating and aligning IT and business strategies, a standard way of going about with ITIL change management, bring to light benefits of implementing ITIL change management, processes involved in ITIL change management, challenges of ITIL change management, improving security within ITIL management, implementation of ITIL and measuring of the ITIL change management.
After all the expected contribution are realized, I expect those organization that will adopt ITIL change management based on this research to effectively respond to customer changing business need and at the same time maximizing value, reduce cost/incidences, rework and disruption. Therefore the outcome is expected to be positive.