Psychology is the study of the mind and the behaviors associated with it. The main focus of the article is the subconscious mind which influences individual behavior more than the conscious mind. Therefore, the article compares the conscious and the subconscious of individuals and their effects on their behavior

Article Information

This article is about the history of psychology. The main writer of this article is C George Boeree. It was published in the 1900’s.


The hypothesis of this research is that the behavior of humans is controlled by the subconscious mind. This means that most of our behaviors are involuntary, and we have no control over them. The conscious mind affects behavior temporarily.

Conduction of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory analyzed human behavior as from childhood to adulthood considering the situations a child goes through during his/her growth, and their effects on the child’s personality traits and behavioral trends. He began with the oral stage. According to Sigmund Freud, this is the stage whereby the child’s gratification comes through the mouth. In case this stage does not complete appropriately; the child is likely to turn into drug and substance abuse. The main drug that is abused is alcohol. The next stage was the anal stage. At this sage, Sigmund Freud argued that the child’s sexual gratification and pleasure could be determined an observed through the retention or the release of the Fieces. The next stage was the phallic stage. At this stage, the individual acquires pleasure from the growing sexual organs (genitalia). The next stage was the latent stage. Freud believed that at this stage, sexual energy was suppressed and more energy expressed in learning. He, however, identified a threat that the child could be masturbating. The following stage was the genital stage Freud stated that this stage began at the age of puberty. At this stage, he believed that individuals start having sexual relations.

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Freud also identified a crisis known as the Oedipus complex. This is a crisis in the phallic stage. Usually, they are sexually attracted to their mothers so much, and they crave for so much love and attention from the mother. They fear castration from the father because they are known to be competing for attention with the father. Girls, on the other hand, suffer Elytra complex. At this stage, they are too much attracted to the father. They also crave for too much attention and affection from their fathers, leading to a competition with their mothers. Individuals who do not develop from this crisis are likely to indulge in incest at their later ages especially when their parents are of weak morals.

Results of the Study

After these studies, there was a vast improvement in the psychological field; psychologists could predict human behavior much better. For example, Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory helps to predict mannerisms of antisocial behavior such as violent crimes, iciest drug and alcohol abuse and sexual irresponsibility. Psychologists could now predict the behavior of human beings according to their ages. Therefore, any weird behaviors among people could easily be detected. This made the study of the mind of a human being much simpler.

Concepts, Theories and Principles

The concept of these psychological theories is the personality traits that result from Sigmund feud theory as well as other psychologists. Also, the state of mind is a key concept. The state of mind was divided into three subdivisions; the conscious, the unconscious and the. The conscious is the state of mind where one is aware of all the activities around them. The individuals can account for everything they do since they are fully aware of it. The subconscious is the state of the mind where an individual can engage in activities involuntarily. The subconscious mind is the main controller of motivation. The unconscious is the state of the mind whereby, the individual does not have knowledge of the people, things and events around them. The mind is to a halt and cannot process any information even during sleep.


In conclusion, these theories have come up with methods of exploring the human thoughts and feelings. Some of these techniques include; dream analyses, free association, resistance and paraphrases. Also, the history of psychology explains the techniques used in counseling such as the gestalt. The gestalt focuses on the self. Its aim is to feel a wholesome self. The gestalt helps individuals not to conform to the values of the society. It helps them to develop values of their own and not move with the crowd.

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Impact of Research Methods on Results

The research was carried out using the lives of specific people. This research method could have played a tremendous role in the results. The results were according to the lives of the few people who were used in the conduction of the research. They could have varied considerably if entirely different people were used in the research.

The research was conducted in stages. This really had an impact on the results of the study. This is because the research was conceptual. It studied the behavior of a human being right from a tender age. It moved step by step until the individual was older. This made sure that the results were no just one conclusive answer but a series of answers which can be seen throughout the life of a human being.

Future Research Ideas Inspired by the Article

The article encourages the use of certain research methods. For example, it supports the use of samples in the conduction of research. These researches about psychology took into account the lives of a few people. The results were then generalized to represent a larger population. This is a research method that has it’s own advantages. For example, it is a relatively cheap research method. This is because it does not involve a lot of people. Therefore, the tools, labor and time needed for research are much more reduced. This makes the cost of the research to go down and be conducted in a relatively shorter time.

The research in represented in the article is rich in methods that can be used in the future. Another method is the use of steps and sequences in the conduction of a research. This method proved to bear fruits in this particular research. This method is so exhaustive that it leaves nothing to chance. Therefore, it is a method that can be used even in the future. This world is full of researches every day. These researches influence decision making by different governments. This in turn influences the lives of citizens. Therefore, these researches should be thorough and exhaustive. Thus, this is a method that could be adopted for now and for the near future.

Impact of Research Findings in the Real World

The findings of the research cannot be separated from the real world. They were studied by psychologists all over the world and therefore, they know what to expect of different people at different ages. This has considerably influenced the world since everyone knows what is to be expected of them. They therefore try to be better persons than what is expected of them by the research. People are also able to judge the actions of others accordingly knowing what to expect of them (Boeree 1900).

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